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Ammonia

SGMF study: Ammonia bunker fuel can cut shipping GHG emissions by up to 61%

Study, conducted by Sphera and commissioned by Society for Gas as a Marine Fuel, concluded that ammonia can ‘beyond question’ contribute significantly to IMO GHG reduction targets.

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An independent study has confirmed that greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions of up to 61% are now achievable from using ammonia as a marine fuel, depending on the marine technology employed. 

This figure is compared with the emissions of current oil-based marine fuels measured from well-to-wake (WtW). 

The 1st Life Cycle GHG Emission Study on the Use of Ammonia as a Marine Fuel from Sphera, a global provider of environmental, social and governance (ESG) performance and risk management software, data and consulting services, uses the latest available marine engine and supply chain data available to date.

The study, commissioned by Society for Gas as a Marine Fuel (SGMF), was conducted according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards. It was also reviewed by a panel of leading independent academic experts from key institutions in France, Germany, and the USA. 

The analysis concluded that ammonia can “beyond question” contribute significantly to the International Maritime Organization’s (IMO) GHG reduction targets.

SGMF Chairman Tom Strang, said: “This is an important piece of work by SGMF that will help inform the maritime sector on the use of ammonia as a marine fuel and reinforces the importance of working together across all the different decarbonisation pathways, and for me highlights why we are part of SGMF”.

This comprehensive report uses the latest primary data to assess all major types of marine engines and global sources of supply with quality data provided by original equipment manufacturers including Wärtsilä, Winterthur Gas & Diesel & MAN Energy Solutions, but also Yara Clean Ammonia, and BASF on the supply side. 

GHG emissions from the supply chains as well as emissions released during the onboard combustion process (slip) have been included in the analysis.

Strang added: “It is important that an independent organisation like SGMF provides quality independent reports such as this latest life cycle assessment (LCA). The industry needs credible information and this is a landmark report as far as ammonia as a marine fuel is concerned.”

Mark Bell, GM for SGMF, added: “We are confident this work will provide IMO with solid information that will contribute to its regulatory decisions. SGMF will continue to produce up-to-date data, now including ammonia (this study), methanol and hydrogen.”

Dr. Oliver Schuller, director sustainability consulting at Sphera, said: “The main goal of this study was to provide a fact-based report describing the life cycle GHG emissions on the use of ammonia as a marine fuel across the value chain from well-to-wake. The analysis followed the established international standards ISO 14040/44 on life cycle assessment and underwent a critical review by three independent experts.”

Note: The full 1st Lifecycle GHG Emission Study on the Use of Ammonia as a Marine Fuel can be accessed from here.

 

Photo credit: Society for Gas as a Marine Fuel
Published: 11 June, 2024

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Ammonia

Singapore: EMA, MPA shortlist two consortia for ammonia power generation and bunkering

Chosen consortia are Keppel’s Infrastructure Division and Sembcorp-SLNG, and the bunkering players in these consortia are Itochu Corporation, NYK Line and Sumitomo Corporation.

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The Energy Market Authority (EMA) and the Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore (MPA) on Thursday (25 July) said they have shortlisted two consortia that will proceed to the next round of evaluations of proposals to provide a low- or zero-carbon ammonia solution on Jurong Island for power generation and bunkering. 

The two consortia were selected from a total of six that were earlier shortlisted in 2023 to participate in a restricted Request for Proposal (RFP), following an Expression of Interest (EOI) called in 2022. The bids were assessed based on the technical, safety and commercial aspects of their proposals. 

The two consortium leads are Keppel’s Infrastructure Division and Sembcorp-SLNG, and the bunkering players in these consortia are Itochu Corporation, Nippon Yusen Kabushiki Kaisha (NYK Line) and Sumitomo Corporation. The two consortia will proceed to conduct engineering, safety and emergency response studies for the proposed Project.

At the next phase, we will select one of the two bidders as the lead developer of the project. The lead developer will develop the end-to-end ammonia solution comprising (i) generating 55 to 65 MW of electricity from imported low- or zero-carbon ammonia via direct combustion in a Combined Cycle Gas Turbine; and (ii) facilitating ammonia bunkering at a capacity of at least 0.1 million tons per annum (MTPA), starting with shore-to-ship bunkering followed by ship-to-ship bunkering. 

Given the nascency of the technology and global supply chains, the Government will work closely with the appointed lead developer to implement the Project. We aim to announce the lead developer by Q1 2025.

The project is part of Singapore’s National Hydrogen Strategy launched in 2022, which outlines Singapore’s approach to develop low-carbon hydrogen as a major decarbonisation pathway as part of the nation’s commitment to achieve net zero emissions by 2050.

A key thrust of this strategy is to experiment with the use of advanced hydrogen technologies that are on the cusp of commercial readiness. Ammonia is currently one of the most technologically-ready hydrogen carriers with an established international supply chain for industrial use.

“If successful, the project will position Singapore as one of the first countries in the world to deploy a direct ammonia combustion power plant and support the development of ammonia bunkering for international shipping, EMA and MPA said.

“This will help to unlock the potential of low-carbon ammonia as a low-carbon fuel.”

 

Photo credit: Manifold Times
Published: 25 July 2024

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Ammonia

GCMD in midst of developing emergency response plan for ammonia STS ops

GCMD is working with Oil Spill Response Limited, BlueTack and Stream Marine Technical to develop a draft ERP for ammonia STS operations, with the aim of adapting it for bunkering.

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GCMD in midst of developing emergency response plan for ammonia STS ops

The Global Centre for Maritime Decarbonisation on Tuesday (23 July) said it has been developing an emergency response plan (ERP) draft with industry partners specifically tailored to accidental ammonia release.

The partners GCMD is working with are Oil Spill Response Limited, BlueTack and Stream Marine Technical.

“GCMD is working with industry partners to develop a draft ERP for ammonia STS operations, with the aim of adapting it for bunkering,” it said in an update. 

Given ammonia’s toxicity, GCMD said it was important to have a well-defined emergency response plan (ERP) to minimise the impact of accidental ammonia release and safeguard life, property, and the environment.

“Existing ERPs for oil and chemical spills can provide a valuable foundation, especially in areas such as tiered response levels based on the severity of release,” it said.

“This, in turn, determines resource needs and multi-agency coordination protocols. However, it is important to recognise that we will need to supplement these plans with procedures tailored to ammonia’s properties.”

The provisional ERP report is scheduled to be released in Q4 of 2024. 

Note: GCMD’s visuals for a preview of the ammonia release ERP it is working on, highlighting some of the scenarios when ammonia is released both into sea and air, can be found here

 

Photo credit: Global Centre for Maritime Decarbonisation
Published: 23 July 2024

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Alternative Fuels

MMMCZCS publishes report on preparing tanker vessels for conversion to green bunker fuels

Converting tankers to green fuels can be technically and economically feasible when carefully considered in the context of fleet transition planning and asset age profiles, says MMMCZCS.

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MMMCZCS publishes report on preparing tanker vessels for conversion to green bunker fuels

The Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller Center for Zero Carbon Shipping (MMMCZCS) recently released its latest publication that sheds light on the technical, economic and environmental impact of preparing tanker vessels for conversion to alternative bunker fuels.

The publication titled ‘Preparing Tanker Vessels for Conversion to Green Fuels’ aims to understand the technical requirements and cost of converting from fuel oil to methanol or ammonia and from liquefied natural gas (LNG) to ammonia.

The publication outlined the project results related to converting tanker vessels to methanol or ammonia fuels.

“To decarbonise the global shipping industry, the world fleet needs to transition to using alternative fuels,” it said.

“However, shipowners are met with a big scope of challenges as they build their decarbonization strategies and determine how to most effectively time their investments in alternative fuel and technologies.”

The report considered reference designs for two types of tanker vessels: LR2 and VLCC. 

These vessel types are two of the largest in the tanker segment, often travel long routes, and have a high fuel consumption ― therefore, they can provide a good illustration of the economic and environmental impacts of different choices relating to vessel conversion. 

For each vessel design, the center defined five levels of preparation for alternative fuels, ranging from no preparation (Level 0) to a dual-fuel newbuild ready to operate on methanol or ammonia (Level 4).

For the LR2 design, the center’s model indicated that the total add-on cost of newbuilding and conversion to operation on methanol or ammonia, depending on preparation level and range, is:

  • 14-27% of the cost of a standard fuel oil newbuild for fuel oil-methanol conversions
  • 25-42% of the cost of a standard fuel oil newbuild for fuel oil-ammonia conversions
  • 47-62% of the cost of a standard fuel oil newbuild (or 21-34% of the cost of an LNG newbuild) for LNG‑ammonia conversions

 The main takeaways from its publication are:

  • Converting tankers to green fuels is technically and economically feasible with careful fleet transition planning and consideration of asset age. The industry possesses the necessary technology and engineering expertise for these conversions.
  • The economic impact of conversions varies based on the chosen green fuel and vessel range.
  • Conversion to alternative fuels affects a vessel’s operating envelope due to differences in energy density and fuel tank size requirements.
  • To maintain the same operational range as fossil fuels, shipowners may need to add tanks on deck (impacting DWT) or sacrifice part of the cargo capacity for fuel tanks.
  • This project focuses on options that reduce the vessel’s operating range but preserve its cargo capacity. Such solutions are believed to have commercial applicability based on industry knowledge.
  • Conversions after ten years of operation on fossil fuels can still considerably reduce a vessel's lifetime greenhouse gas emissions, though financial viability of conversions at this stage of the vessel’s lifetime must be considered.

Note: The full report by MMMCZCS can be viewed here.

 

Photo credit: Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller Center for Zero Carbon Shipping
Published: 23 July 2024

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