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ICCT paper: Newer marine engines have ‘significantly higher’ emission rates than older engines

Study found newer Tier II engines had notably higher NOx emission rates than older Tier I engines; no statistical difference found in NOx emission rates between unregulated Tier 0 engines and Tier II engines.





The International Council on Clean Transportation on Wednesday (11 October) released a new working paper that analysed 615 samples of real-world NOx emissions from 545 ships operating in Danish waters between the North Sea and the Baltic Sea in 2019. 

Measurements for the Real-world NOX emissions from ships and implications for future regulations working paper were obtained using sniffers attached to helicopters flown into exhaust plumes. The data includes measurements from ships covering all engine age categories (tiers).

The results were eye-opening: Newer Tier II engines had significantly higher NOx emission rates than older Tier I engines. Moreover, there was no statistical difference in NOx emission rates between unregulated Tier 0 engines and Tier II engines.

Screenshot 2023 10 13 at 12.59.50 PM

The greatest mean NOx emission rates were found at main engine loads below 25%, with emissions averaging 12 g/kWh across all vessel types and engine tiers. Emission rates decrease as main engine loads increase, with mean emission rates of 8.1 g/kWh at loads greater than 75%. Existing NOx test cycles assume that marine engines most often operate at higher engine loads; however, this study finds that engines typically operate at lower engine loads.

NOx regulations could be revised to make them more effective at reducing air pollution. Rather than relying on weighted emissions limits, the International Maritime Organization could consider implementing not-to-exceed (NTE) standards for new and existing ships, particularly focusing on operations at low loads, and including a test point below 25% load.

Note: The full Real-world NOX emissions from ships and implications for future regulations can be downloaded here.

Photo credit: International Council on Clean Transportation
Published: 13 October, 2023

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Alternative Fuels

Infineon and HD KSOE ink MoU to jointly develop ship electrification technology

Both will jointly develop emerging applications for the electrification of marine engines and machinery using energy-efficient power semiconductor technology.





Infineon and HD KSOE ink MoU to jointly develop ship electrification technology

German semiconductor manufacturer Infineon Technologies AG on Thursday (28 March) said it has signed a non-binding Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with HD Korea Shipbuilding & Offshore Engineering Co. Ltd. (HD KSOE) as a first step towards jointly developing emerging applications for the electrification of marine engines and machinery using energy-efficient power semiconductor technology.

“HD KSOE is already focusing on creating eco-friendly decarbonised ship technology that uses electricity and hydrogen,” Infineon said in a statement. 

“The company will now cooperate with Infineon to create innovative power solutions for propulsion drive technology, a core element for ship electrification.”

For modern maritime applications, power semiconductors are a key factor in guaranteeing a precise control of multiple power modules, such as large-capacity propulsion drives.

Infineon will provide HD KSOE with technical assistance and mentoring in semiconductor power modules and system solutions, as well as share information on new semiconductor trends for marine applications. 

With the partnership HD KSOE aims to enhance reliability and performance of marine vessels’ propulsion drive technology contributing to environmental sustainability through the electrification of ships.

“The transition to electric ships is imperative to mitigate the environmental impact of maritime transportation,” Infineon added.

“We are pleased to sign an MoU with Infineon, which underpins our innovation efforts to become a leader in ship electrification technology,” said Chang Kwang-pil, Chief Technology Officer of HD KSOE. 

“Together, we will combine our strengths to create energy-efficient power solutions for CO2-friendly propulsion drives.”

“At Infineon we are providing the technologies needed in today's world of transportation to drive electrification that will shape the future of mobility,” said Dr. Peter Wawer, Division President Green Industrial Power at Infineon Technologies. 

“We are excited to work closely together with HD KSOE to develop clean, safe and smart mobility solutions. This way, we contribute to a more sustainable marine engine ecosystem and drive the decarbonisation of shipping.”


Photo credit: HD Korea Shipbuilding & Offshore Engineering
Published: 2 April, 2024

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Singapore: Asia Pacific Maritime 2024 sets new record with highest attendance to date

Event, held from 13 to 15 March 2024, welcomed an unprecedented number of 15,717 attendees; event showcased an extensive range of 710 exhibitors and featured 150 industry speakers worldwide.





Singapore: Asia Pacific Maritime 2024 sets new record with highest attendance to date

The 18th Asia Pacific Maritime (APM), held from 13 to 15 March 2024, welcomed an unprecedented number of 15,717 attendees in Singapore, according to its organiser RX on Friday (22 March). 

This figure surpassed attendance records of previous editions, signifying a positive revitalisation of Asia Pacific's maritime sector and solidifying Singapore's position as a leading maritime hub.

Held at the Marina Bay Sands, the event showcased an extensive range of 710 exhibitors and featured 150 industry speakers worldwide. This year's theme, 'Future of Vessels, Solutions for Tomorrow', was a timely response to the industry's pressing need for sustainable and innovative solutions. 

“It fills me with great pleasure to be back at APM as a conference speaker. Participating in this edition was particularly humbling because I was able to meet many global exhibitors and speakers, all from diverse backgrounds. They offered various perspectives on the maritime industry's future,” said Punit Oza, Founder, Maritime NXT & International Vice President, Institute of Chartered Shipbrokers. 

“What stood out to me was the urgent need for decarbonisation. The topic took centre stage at APM 2024, with leaders coming forward to discuss solutions that will drive the industry's net-zero target. I'm glad to have been part of the conversations and look forward to more.”

The latest conversations to drive the maritime solutions for tomorrow 

As the world's largest bunkering hub preparing for a multi-fuel future, Singapore is the perfect location for industry players to convene. For instance, in the area of ammonia, although Singapore is driven by the intention of power generation, the country will start to generate the infrastructure and network for the maritime industry to leverage. As such, it is incredibly important for the industry to monitor and evaluate how we can keep pushing for these developments, because that will drive investments for the hub to transform and accommodate new fuels.

Other APM 2024 conference sessions such as Ship Design and Operations: Alternative Fuels for Decarbonisation of Shipping – The Safety Requirements dived into the safety measures for each fuel, which differs and depends on the characteristics of the fuel type. Another session titled Accelerating Green and Smart Ports Development Through Ecosystem Development discussed the need for eco-friendly infrastructures, technology integration, and ecosystems to develop green and smart ports.

APM 2024 also saw the return of exhibitors such as Speedcast, a global communications provider specialising in networking and application innovations. 

Phill Proud, Director – Product Innovation, Speedcast, said: “APM has always been one of Speedcast's go-to trade shows for the maritime industry. This edition was particularly fruitful because we met an exceptionally large number of customers and partners.”

“Alongside industry leaders, I was able to share my thoughts on how the evolving technologies in maritime communication are redefining vessel operations in a session titled Unlocking The Future of Broadband at Sea: How Multi-Orbit Connectivity Is Propelling Maritime Forward.”

“We engaged in thought-provoking discussions about hybrid connectivity technology advancements, the transformative potential of MSS services, the next-generation flat-panel antennas, and the strategic utilisation of intelligent networking management platforms to achieve 100% uptime and true application-level prioritisation.”

A one-stop for the latest innovations in the maritime community 

The exhibition floor was a productive space for product launches, establishment of partnerships, and corporate announcements. Sea Forrest, a leading energy management solutions provider, signed an Agency Agreement with Mate@Sea, a maritime advanced technology and equipment specialist, to distribute its solutions in Europe and the Middle East. Separately, EVE Energy, a leader in lithium batteries, signed a contract with world-class integrator of power, control and system solutions, ZPA, to jointly promote the development of green shipping. 

Weichai, one of the world's largest automobile and equipment manufacturers, revealed its next-generation WH17, a new high-end marine engine designed to redefine marine propulsion standards. Separately, the leading provider of smart network solutions, Marlink, unveiled its new brand for the first time at APM 2024. 

First-time exhibitor Aage Hempel Group leveraged APM 2024 to enhance its Asian presence by showcasing its comprehensive range of maritime services and solutions, while Jotun, the world’s leading expert in high-performance coatings for the maritime industry, gave insights into one of the solutions that underpin clean shipping commitment and how it can help maintain a clean hull, even in the most challenging operations.

The premier platform for international business opportunities 

Attendees on-site also had access to 18 international pavilions spread across two floors of the exhibition. 

Jonathan Sørbye, Head of Export, Innovation Norway, said:, “On behalf of the Norwegian pavilion, I would like to express my heartfelt thanks to APM for extending the invitation to Norwegian companies to showcase their offerings to the global maritime community.”

“During the three days of the exhibition, I met countless international experts from the shipbuilding and marine, workboat, offshore, and port technology fields. Achieving the net-zero target is no easy feat. It would require the entire industry ecosystem to work together through knowledge sharing, and we are thrilled to contribute through the global platform of APM.” 

APM will return for its 19th edition in 2026, from 25 to 27 March. 

Note: For more exhibition and conference highlights, visit the event website, LinkedIn, or Facebook pages.

Manifold Times was an official media partner of Asia Pacific Maritime 2024; a series of articles related to the event written by the Singapore bunkering publication are as follows:

Related: APM 2024: Achieving IMO GHG 2030 goal is possible but requires firing all cylinders, says DNV
Related: APM 2024: Keynote panellists highlight focusing beyond alternative bunker fuels in net-zero pathway
Related: APM 2024 Interview: GCMD examines decarbonisation of Singapore’s bunkering fleet, promotes biofuel fingerprinting
Related: APM 2024 Interview: Mærsk Mc-Kinney Møller Center for Zero Carbon Shipping discusses green bunker fuels and maritime decarbonisation
Related: APM 2024 Interview: MESD discusses studies on alternative bunker fuels, outlook on maritime decarbonisation
Related: Singapore: 120 maritime industry experts to share insights at APM 2024


Photo credit: RX
Published: 25 March 2024

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LR: Total cost of ownership a potential barrier for methanol propulsion on passenger ships

Report shows TCO for passenger ships retrofitted with methanol dual-fuel engines to be more than double the cost of blended fuel (Blend B30), HFO and HFO with carbon capture technology.





Stena Germanica

A new report from Lloyd’s Register (LR), released recently, found that the total cost of ownership (TCO) for passenger ships retrofitted with methanol dual-fuel engines to be more than double the cost of blended fuel (Blend B30), heavy fuel oil (HFO) and HFO with Onboard Carbon Capture and Storage technologies (oCCS).

LR’s Fuel for thought: Methanol for Passenger Ships examined the TCO for operators over a 15-year period and based results on a calculation that 65% of voyage time would be spent in EU waters. 

Overall findings identified in the report, based on analysis by the LR Business Advisory team, show the bunkering price of methanol to be the main commercial barrier for its adoption, with the use of less environmentally friendly fossil based (grey) methanol a more commercially attractive proposition for passenger shipowners than a blend of 50% grey, 25% bio- and 25% e-methanol, even when EU emissions taxes are taken into account.

However, the study highlights that methanol is a technically viable fuel for ship operators looking to reduce the carbon emissions of passenger ship newbuilds, owing to the similar characteristics of methanol to existing fuels. 

Viable retrofit paths have also been taken to the sector, such as the pioneer LR project for the Stena Germanica back in 2015. This technical viability is reflected in the global orderbook with passenger ships ranging from small inland vessels to the largest cruise ships awaiting delivery.

The report also outlined that greater investment is needed in green and bio-methanol production along with improved bunkering infrastructure to increase fuel availability and reduce costs to a commercially viable level.

Natasha Pritchard, VP Strategic Key Accounts (Cruise), Lloyd’s Register, said: “Our latest Fuel for thought report brings some much-needed insights for passenger ship owners evaluating methanol as part of their energy transition pathway.”

“Whilst methanol as marine fuel holds considerable promise as a low carbon solution for passenger ship propulsion, the total cost of ownership (TCO) compared to other fuels may represent an obstacle to its widespread take-up in the segment.”

“It is therefore vital that renewable and low-carbon production of methanol is prioritised in order to drive down these costs.”


Photo credit: Stena Line
Published: 14 March 2024

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