The expected outcomes of the evaluation will support the establishment of regulatory sandboxes for pilots and demonstration projects, with a view of enabling ammonia bunkering in the future.
So, how viable is ammonia and is it safe enough for widespread use as a marine fuel in Singapore, or anywhere, for that matter?
From DNV’s own studies and from pilot programmes conducted in Europe in particular, ammonia comes clean as an ideal marine fuel for long-haul shipping, as part of a wider mix of fuel options.
As a global organisation headquartered in Norway – recognised as the world’s leading classification society and respected advisor to the maritime industry – DNV is well positioned to weigh up all the clean and green fuel options which could take their place, alongside LNG, and even replace it one day, as an alternative shipping fuel, as outlined in detail in DNV’s Maritime Forecast to 2050.5
Not only does ammonia burn CO₂-free, like hydrogen, but it has a higher energy density and is easier to store and transport, as it doesn’t require cryogenic – or ultra-cool – storage.
As ammonia has advantages over the direct use of hydrogen for long-distance shipping, the International Energy Agency (IEA) states in its Net Zero Emissions Scenario that ammonia could meet around 45 percent of global shipping fuel demand. IEA also sees green ammonia as the lowest cost option as an alternative fuel for the future (by 2050).6
An evaluation of a Newcastlemax bulk carrier newbuild by DNV experts has shown that ammonia would likely be the cheapest carbon-neutral fuel for this ship type under certain scenarios – adding that Fuel Ready (ammonia) and dual-fuel designs are becoming valid options for shipowners already now.7