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LNG Bunkering

Study reveals achievable pathway to net-zero in Pilbara-to-Asia export trade through LNG bunker fuel

RINA completed a joint study with Pilbara Clean Fuels and Oceania Marine Energy revealing that Well-to-Wake emissions in Pilbara-to-Asia iron ore export trade route can be reduced by over 90% by 2050 through use of LNG.




RESIZED william william on Unsplash

Classification society RINA on Wednesday (5 June) announced it completed a joint study with Pilbara Clean Fuels Pty Ltd and Oceania Marine Energy that revealed that Well-to-Wake emissions in the Pilbara-to-Asia iron ore export trade route can be reduced by over 90% by 2050 through the use of LNG.

RINA added that Western Australia is the largest producer of iron ore in the world, with current production of over 850 million tonnes per annum, the majority of which is exported from the Pilbara region of Western Australia.

The following are the details of the study:

Key developments

- Pilbara Clean Fuels (PCF) is pursuing the development of an electrified LNG plant in Port Hedland, Western Australia aimed at producing low-carbon LNG marine bunker fuel. 

- Oceania Marine Energy (Oceania) is developing a marine fuel bunkering business using purpose-designed LNG re-fuelling vessels to be chartered from Kanfer Shipping, Norway. 

- RINA has developed an innovative concept for an LNG-fuelled 209,000 DWT Newcastlemax dry bulk carrier design incorporating pre-combustion carbon removal and hydrogen production to meet IMO 2050 Carbon Intensity Index (CII) requirements over the ship’s operating life.      

In November 2023 PCF, Oceania and RINA signed an MoU to collaborate on studies to define the commercial and emissions reduction benefits their combined concepts could deliver to ship owners and charterers for the Pilbara to Asia dry-bulk minerals export trade route. The Joint Study has now been completed. 

Study Findings

The findings demonstrate an accessible and achievable pathway to Net-Zero Emissions for LNG, on a Well-to-Wake basis, for international shipping on this trade. The study presents a flexible and commercially attractive IMO compliant marine fuel strategy to ship owners, operators and charterers amidst competing alternative fuel. It proposes a ‘Green Corridor’ marine fuels solution for the Western Australia to China bulk minerals export trade route. 

Achieving Emissions Reduction 

The low-carbon LNG plant by Pilbara Clean Fuels has the potential to initially produce LNG with emissions of less than 200kg of GHG per tonne, which can be further reduced to around 50kg/t LNG (and potentially to zero through technology improvements).  

LNG bunkering in the Pilbara region offers a substantial voyage optimization by eliminating the need to deviate to other major bunkering hubs in the region, thus significantly reducing emissions. This also reduces by 25% the emissions associated with transporting LNG over long distances, compared to LNG bunkering in other ports and ensures competitive pricing for LNG.  

RINA’s bulk-carrier ship concept features a novel propulsion arrangement which achieves a fuel saving of 12% when running on LNG at current market speeds and offers the charterer greater fuel flexibility and enhanced economic benefits by reducing LNG consumption. This can lead to lower fuel running costs, particularly when compared with traditional fuel oil. 

It provides redundancy, significantly reducing the risk of black out, and does not suffer from well-known issues like acceleration through engine’s barred speed range. The ship can also harvest the benefits from wind propulsion. 

The proposal is flexible in fuel selection and, most importantly, the use of hydrogen produced on board is on demand. This concept, which produces carbon dioxide that is captured and stored onboard, can be delivered price-competitive as it has been designed to retrofit emissions-reduction equipment in stages to suit the owners’ requirements. The design allows charterers to modify the vessels with modular hydrogen production and carbon capture and storage (CCS) equipment to meet GHG compliance as needed.  

The bunker vessel design incorporates a hybrid energy system, including an 8MWh battery, allowing for emission free operation in port. This, alongside the onboard CGR-designed process plant for vapour recovery and re-liquefaction, significantly reduces emissions and enhances operational efficiency.  

The CO2 generated from onboard pre-combustion hydrogen production can economically be integrated into the large volume CCS hubs currently being developed in the Pilbara region by various third-party proponents. 

The combination of systems and technologies allows LNG-fuelled dry-bulk carriers to significantly reduce emissions today and to comply with the IMO 2023 GHG Reduction Strategy through to 2050. 

The study concludes that by implementing this holistic combined systems approach, Well-to-Wake emissions for the Pilbara to Asia export shipping industry can be reduced by more than 90% by 2050. The reduction of GHG emissions is achieved by progressively decreasing the LNG fuel share to the engines while proportionately increasing hydrogen usage. 

This allows for staged upgrades over the vessel’s lifetime to comply with the IMO requirements for continuously reducing GHG emissions. The ship-owner to decide which path to follow to stay ahead of compliance and competition. All necessary technologies for achieving Net Zero Emissions with LNG as a marine fuel already exist and are in use, marking the first time they have been proposed in combination, demonstrating a positive path to Net Zero Emissions for international shipping.  

The Joint Study results present a significant opportunity for decarbonising shipping in the Pilbara region and beyond, contributing to global efforts to combat climate change. 

Related: Hexagon Energy and Oceania ink MoU on low-emissions ammonia bunkering in Pilbara region
Related: Oceania Marine Energy and Pilbara Clean Fuels sign MoU for LNG marine fuel bunkering
Related: Pilbara Clean Fuels receives preliminary results of studies on eLNG plant project in Port Hedland
Related: Australia: McGowan Government advancing to establish LNG bunkering hub in Pilbara


Photo credit: william william on Unsplash
Published: 7 June 2024

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Bunker Fuel

ENGINE on Fuel Switch Snapshot: HSFO remains cheapest across hubs

Brent’s steep fall brings VLSFO down; Singapore premiums over Rotterdam narrow; EU to impose tariffs on Chinese biodiesel imports.





ENGINE on Fuel Switch Snapshot: HSFO remains cheapest across hubs

Once a week, bunker intelligence platform ENGINE will publish a snapshot of alternative and conventional bunker fuel prices in the world’s two biggest bunkering hubs. The following is the latest snapshot:

22 July 2024

  • Brent's steep fall brings VLSFO down
  • Singapore premiums over Rotterdam narrow
  • EU to impose tariffs on Chinese biodiesel imports

A sharp drop of $2.40/bbl ($18/mt) in front-month Brent futures has pushed down conventional fuel prices for yet another week. 

Bio-blend prices have also declined amid decreases in both bio- and conventional fuel components. 

Rotterdam’s VLSFO-equivalent LNG benchmark has bucked the downward trend and inched up by $3/mt in the past week.

LNG bunker fuel is priced $16/mt higher than VLSFO in Singapore, making VLSFO the cheaper option for dual-fuel vessels bunkering there. Conversely, LNG is the more cost-effective choice for dual-fuel ships bunkering in Rotterdam.

The ARA’s B24-VLSFO UCOME price premium over Singapore’s has widened from $19/mt to $32/mt as Singapore’s price has dropped.


VLSFO demand has improved slightly in the ARA in the past week, following slow activity the week before, a trader said. This seems to have prevented Rotterdam’s VLSFO benchmark from following Brent's significant decline.

Singapore’s VLSFO benchmark has tracked more of the crude benchmark's price drop, slipping by $14/mt in the past week. Most suppliers recommend lead times of up to 14 days for VLSFO in the port, but some can manage deliveries within five days.

When factoring in estimated EUA costs, Rotterdam’s VLSFO price has declined by $7-9/mt, while Singapore’s price has fallen by $16/mt.


Singapore’s B24-VLSFO UCOME price has declined by $7/mt in the past week, while its B24-LSMGO UCOME price has fallen by $9/mt. The two bio-bunker benchmarks have declined amid declining values for pure VLSFO ($4/mt) and LSMGO ($9/mt).

On Friday, the European Commission announced that it will impose provisional duties of up to 36.4% on biodiesel imports from China. PRIMA said “the EU anti-dumping results and its associated duties (ADDs) have effectively killed off Chinese biodiesel trading prospects into Europe”.

A lack of EU demand for Chinese biodiesel could result in more Chinese UCOME being exported to meet demand in countries like Singapore, sources say.

Rotterdam’s B30-VLSFO HBE price has declined by $8/mt in the past week, while its B30-LSMGO HBE price has dropped by a greater $14/mt. A $32/mt drop in the ARA POMEME price assessed by PRIMA Markets has pulled both benchmarks lower.

Biofuel price premiums over pure conventional fuels in Rotterdam are $189/mt for B30-VLSFO HBE blends and $136/mt for B30-LSMGO HBE blends. These premiums have narrowed by $9-12/mt in the past week.

The EU’s provisional duties on Chinese biodiesel imports could tighten availability of bio feedstocks for bio-bunker blending across Europe.


Rotterdam’s LNG bunker price has risen by $22/mt to $652/mt in the past week. The price rise has tracked an increase in the front-month NYMEX Dutch TTF Natural Gas contract.

The upward trend can be attributed to supply concerns at the Freeport LNG export terminal on the US Gulf Coast, a major source of European LNG supply. Some 5.4% of Europe's total LNG imports last year came from Freeport LNG.

Several LNG cargoes from Freeport LNG were held back from being exported by supply disruptions caused by Hurricane Beryl. This has contributed to push Rotterdam's LNG price higher in the past week.

Singapore's LNG bunker price has decreased by $11/mt, driven by a falling NYMEX Japan/Korea Marker (JKM) price.

The JKM price increased some in the middle of last week due to active deals to meet summer demand, before falling amid ample supply and high inventory levels, according to a report by the Japan Organization for Metals and Energy Security (JOGMEC).

By Konica Bhatt


Photo credit and source: ENGINE
Published: 23 July 2024

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LNG Bunkering

Shanghai SIPG completes three LNG bunkering operations of newbuildings

Ships involved were 7,500 CEU dual-fuel PCTC “Liao He Kou”, “CMA CGM FORT BOURBON”, a 7,300 TEU dual-fuel container ship, and “CMA CGM BELEM”, a 13,000 TEU dual-fuel container ship.





Shanghai SIPG completes three LNG bunkering operations of newbuildings

Shanghai SIPG Energy Service Co.,Ltd on Tuesday (16 July) said it successfully completed LNG bunkering operations of three newly-delivered dual-fuel ships at the Luhuashan anchorage.

The operations took place from 10 to 13 July for a total of 70 hours with a total bunkering volume of 9260.9 cubic metres (m3).

Shanghai SIPG completes three LNG bunkering operations of newbuildings

The ships involved were Guangzhou Yuanhai Automobile Shipping Car Carrier 7,500 CEU dual-fuel PCTC Liao He Kou, CMA CGM FORT BOURBON, a 7,300 TEU dual-fuel container ship and CMA CGM BELEM, a 13,000 TEU dual-fuel container ship.

The ships were refuelled by bunkering vessel Hai Gang Wei Lai. To date, Hai Gang Wei Lai has completed bunkering at anchorage for 13 ships with a cumulative bunker volume of 48,220 m3.

640 (6)

640 (7)

Disclaimer: The above article published by Manifold Times was sourced from China’s domestic market through a local correspondent. While considerable efforts have been taken to verify its accuracy through a professional translator and processed from sources believed to be reliable, no warranty is made regarding the accuracy, completeness and reliability of any information.


Photo credit: Shanghai SIPG Energy Service Co.,Ltd
Published: 18 July 2024

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LNG Bunkering

Peninsula completes LNG bunkering op of “Thor Highway” in Gibraltar

Peninsula’s LNG bunker vessel “Levante LNG” successfully carried out the operation to deliver fuel to the car carrier, which is a newly built vessel chartered by “K” LINE.





Peninsula completes LNG bunkering op of “Thor Highway” in Gibraltar

Marine fuel supplier Peninsula on Wednesday (17 July) announced the successful LNG bunkering of the car carrier Thor Highway by Peninsula’s LNG bunker vessel Levante LNG

The supply operation was carried out for its customer “K” LINE in Gibraltar.

The Thor Highway, operated by “K” LINE, is a newly built LNG dual-fuelled car carrier chartered by the company and was delivered this year. 

The vessel is part of “K” LINE’s continued commitment to lower carbon shipping solutions. Peninsula’s Tokyo office was integral in facilitating this deal through the strong relationship built with “K” LINE locally.

The smooth delivery also highlights Gibraltar and its Port Authority’s ambition in making their Port a key hub for LNG bunkering in the Mediterranean.

Peninsula’s Head of Sustainability and Alternative Fuels, Nacho de Miguel, said: “The LNG powered vessel order book is looking very healthy over the coming years. This further validates our decision to develop LNG bunkering solutions in the early stages of the marine fuel transition.

“Due to the ever-growing experience in supplies undertaken by our Alternative Fuels, Physical and Reselling desks, we are constantly increasing our ability to better service our customers. “K” LINE’s trust in Peninsula for supplying the Thor Highway is a testament to our growing presence in the LNG space and our ability to service customers from across the globe.”

Related: Peninsula sees ‘uplift’ interest in LNG bunker fuel among customers


Photo credit: Peninsula
Published: 18 July 2024

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