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Analysis

Oil/bunker tankers ‘vulnerable’ when anchored at sea

Pirate attack on MT Lee Bo underscores continued threat to vessels by criminal groups in the area.

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UK-based maritime security firm Protection Vessels International (PVI) has provided its analysis of a recent piracy incident involving a total of 16 individuals robbing bunker tanker MT Lee Bo off the coast of Malaysia.

The robbers armed with knives boarded and attempted to steal cargo from the Mongolia-flagged bunker tanker anchored 34 nautical miles East of Mersing, Johor state; they robbed the crew and injured two members when they discovered the tanker was not loaded

Malaysian Maritime Enforcement Agency forces apprehended all assailants armed with knives and machetes.

“Hijacking vessels to steal oil and marine fuel was common between 2014-2015, with many major attacks reported off Malaysia’s southeast coast,” says PVI.

“Attacks continue to be sporadically reported in the region although incidents have declined significantly since 2016.

“The incident on 31 May underscores the continued threat to vessels by criminal groups in the area, particularly when in the more vulnerable position of being anchored further out at sea.”

Related: Malaysia: Bunkering vessel robbed off Mersing

Photo credit: MarineTraffic / Sergei Skriabin
Published: 25 June, 2018

 

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Fuel Testing

VPS publishes 2023 annual review of its findings on bunker fuels

Findings in VPS’ review include 58% of its 2023 Bunker Alerts were for VLSFO fuels, followed by 24% for MGO fuels and 14% for HSFO; most common problematic parameter was Flash Point.

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Marine fuels testing company VPS on Tuesday (16 January) published an article titled ‘2023 Marine Bunker Fuels Review’ by Steve Bee, VPS Group Commercial Director, giving insightful annual review of VPS findings on both global and regional maritime fuel matters, focusing on marine fuels. 

Introduction

2023 saw the continuing evolution and the widening of available maritime fuel types and grades, as the global shipping industry gathered decarbonisation momentum to reduce its emissions and achieve current and future legislation targets. Existing CII and EEXI requirements, the incoming EU ETS legislation, plus the slightly longer-term IMO legislation, saw increasing demand for additional testing, lower-carbon fuels, data and digitalisation solutions across the shipping sectors.

As the leading maritime decarbonisation testing and advisory services provider, VPS continued to be at the forefront of marine fuels and lubricants analysis, utilising our experience, expertise and innovative approach, to support this drive for a more sustainable shipping fleet.  

Throughout the year, VPS witnessed further fuel quality issues with VLSFOs in terms of cold-flow property issues, sulphur compliance and cat-fines. HSFO and VLSFO suffered numerous degrees of chemical contamination, whilst MGO suffered from cold-flow, flash point and FAME off-specifications.

Biofuels usage certainly gathered momentum and the increased demand from the market led to increasing queries regarding their fuel management and their “fit-for-purpose” as a drop-in marine fuel, which in turn called upon VPS to provide answers and solutions to customers, utilising our extensive knowledge and understanding of biofuels and their associated test parameters. 

The Marine Fuel Mix

Across 2023, the fuel mix with respect to samples received for testing in VPS laboratories, equated to 62.7 million MT, which is over 5 million MT of marine fuels per month. VLSFO was the most popular marine fuel with 54.3% of the fuels used, followed by 29.5% HSFO (a growth of 15.4% over 2022), 14.2% MGO, 1.2% ULSFO and 0.8% Biofuels. Regarding biofuels usage, the samples tested by VPS equated to an increase from 231,000 MT in 2022 to 558,000 MT in 2023.

VPS 2023 MARINE BUNKER FUELS REVIEW

VPS Bunker Alerts

Bunker Alerts highlight short term fuel quality issues identified by VPS, for a specific test parameter of a specific fuel grade/type in a specific port. The service provides valuable information to customers, to assist in avoiding potentially problematic fuel types in a highlighted port or region, to further protect the customer’s asset and crew.

In 2023 VPS issued 28 Bunker Alerts, eight fewer than in 2022. The 2023 Bunker Alerts included all major fuel grades, i.e. VLSFO, HSFO, MGO and ULSFO, ten different test parameters, 12 ports and 9 countries.

58% of the 2023 Bunker Alerts were for VLSFO fuels, followed by 24% for MGO fuels and 14% for HSFO. The most common problematic parameter was Flash Point, accounting for 28% of the Bunker Alerts, followed by Sodium at 24%, with Sulphur and TSP at 10% each.

Singapore (32%) and ARA (21%) were the regions/ports most frequently requiring a Bunker Alert to be issued. But as these are the two busiest bunkering regions, it is not too surprising.

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VLSFO Fuel Quality

As the most used marine fuel type, VLSFO accounts for more than half of the fuels tested by VPS. In terms of quality, Europe provided the highest level of off-specification VLSFOs in both 2023 (7.8%) and 2022 (7.9%). Africa provided the next highest level of off-specification fuels with 6.7% in 2023 and 7.0% in 2022, with North America third with 4.4% of fuels tested exhibiting at least one off-specification parameter in 2023 and 4.3% in 2022.

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Sulphur is the most common off-specification parameter of VLSFOs, accounting for 26.6% of VLSFO off-specs in 2023 and 31.5% in 2022. 0.7% of VLSFOs tested in 2023 had a sulphur level of 0.50%-0.53%, with 0.5% of samples tested having a sulphur level greater than 0.53%.

Pour Point was also a common off-specification parameter for VLSFOs with 13.6% of VLSFOs off-specs relating to this parameter in 2023 an increase over the 11.4% level witnessed in 2022. 

The importance of the additional cold-flow test of Wax Appearance Temperature (WAT) and Wax Disappearance Temperature (WDT), was highlighted in 2023 with 63% of VLSFOs exhibiting WAT of 31-40ºC and 14% having WAT between 41-50ºC. 55.7% of VLSFO samples had a WDT of 41-50ºC, with 28.1% having a WDT of >50ºC. VLSFOs cold-flow properties are a definite concern with wax precipitating from the fuel at temperatures way in excess of 10ºC above the pour point, potentially causing numerous operational problems such as filter and pipework blockages.

Sulphur is the most common off-specification parameter of VLSFOs, accounting for 26.6% of VLSFO off-specs in 2023 and 31.5% in 2022. 0.7% of VLSFOs tested in 2023 had a sulphur level of 0.50%-0.53%, with 0.5% of samples tested having a sulphur level greater than 0.53%.

Pour Point was also a common off-specification parameter for VLSFOs with 13.6% of VLSFOs off-specs relating to this parameter in 2023 an increase over the 11.4% level witnessed in 2022. 

The importance of the additional cold-flow test of Wax Appearance Temperature (WAT) and Wax Disappearance Temperature (WDT), was highlighted in 2023 with 63% of VLSFOs exhibiting WAT of 31-40ºC and 14% having WAT between 41-50ºC. 55.7% of VLSFO samples had a WDT of 41-50ºC, with 28.1% having a WDT of >50ºC. VLSFOs cold-flow properties are a definite concern with wax precipitating from the fuel at temperatures way in excess of 10ºC above the pour point, potentially causing numerous operational problems such as filter and pipework blockages.

2023 also saw a significant increase in cat-fine levels in VLSFOs, with 12.7% of all off-specifications relating to this parameter, compared to 8.5% in 2022. 16.2% of all VLSFOs showed a cat-fine level greater than 40ppm. Frequent checking of purifier efficiency via VPS’ Fuel System Checks (FSC) service is a highly recommended proactive safeguard in respect to increased cat-fines within VLSFOs.

VLSFO viscosities vary enormously depending upon to blend components used. In 2023 VLSFO viscosities ranged from <20Cst to >380Cst. 16% of all VLSFO off-specifications were due to viscosity. Only 0.5% of VLSFOs had a viscosity of >380Cst. 68% of all VLSFO viscosities were less than 180Cst. Viscosity is such a key operational parameter, determining the transfer and injection temperatures of fuel onboard ships and therefore determining the exact viscosity of VLSFOs is crucial to ensure optimal efficiency.

Biofuels

As global shipping looks towards low-to-zero carbon fuels to answer many emissions reduction challenges, biofuels offer an immediate “drop-in” solution. As such VPS tested the equivalent of over 500,000 MT of biofuels in 2023 compared to ca. 230,000 MT in 2022.

Europe, (mainly ARA-region) provided the highest volume of biofuels at almost 400K MT (ca. 74%) and Singapore second (ca. 21%), providing just over 100K MT.

The most common biofuel blend was B30 (10-30% bio), which accounted for 34.3% of biofuel samples tested by VPS. Yet, B100 (>90% bio) was not far behind with 30.1%.

The majority of biofuels contained Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) as the bio-component, although VPS did test others containing HVO, HEFA, Cashew Nut Shell Liquid (CNSL) and Tyre Pyrolysis Oil (TPO).

Where FAME is the bio-component within marine biofuels, the key considerations are:

  • Energy Content, Renewable Content
  • Fuel Stability, Cold-Flow Properties
  • Corrosivity, Microbial Growth

Of the biofuels tested by VPS in 2023, 9% of those tested for oxidation stability gave the concerning result of <5 hours, highlighting a high degree of instability, whilst 6.7% gave a result of 5-8 hours which is still a cause for concern.

In terms of corrosivity, 11.9% of those biofuels tested provided an amber/caution result, whilst 8.5% of those tested provide a red warning, indicating potential high levels of corrosivity.

It is fully expected that the growth in biofuels usage for marine applications will continue to increase across 2024 and the VPS Additional Protection Service (APS) when using biofuels, will only increase in importance as the industry looks for more information regarding the fuel management of biofuels.

Summary

2023 once again highlighted the importance of bunker fuel quality testing, as a proactive means to protect vessels, their crew and the environment. With additional tests, currently not included within ISO8217, providing further  vital information in achieving heightened levels of protection.

Whilst we can expect a new revision of ISO8217 in early 2024, additional tests will still hold an important role in fuel management.

Biofuels usage will continue to increase in demand and importance, as ship owners and operators look to achieve improvements through CII and EEXI, as well as looking to counter the financial impact of the EU ETS scheme.

Methanol demand and usage will also grow, following the recent success of Maersk’s Laura Maersk and the rapidly growing order book for methanol-powered vessels.

So 2024, suggests another year of widening marine fuel types and grades coming to market, coupled with their growing fuel management considerations.

Note: The full article titled ‘2023 Marine Bunker Fuels Review’ with related graphs and charts can be found here

Related: World’s first methanol-fuelled boxship christened and named “Laura Maersk”

 

Photo credit: VPS
Published: 30 January, 2024

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Business

Exclusive: Estimated marine fuel sales figures of Singapore top 10 bunker suppliers by volume in 2023

Top three gainers for 2023 were Sinopec Fuel Oil (+16), Pegasus Maritime (+12), and both Kenoil Marime Services (+6) and Central Star Marine Supplies (+6).

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The Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore (MPA) on Friday (12 January) updated its list of top bunker suppliers by volume in 2023.

A survey conducted by Singapore marine fuels publication Manifold Times with selected industry sources revealed the estimated annual bunker sales volume for the republic’s top 10 Singapore bunker suppliers in 2023:

ESTIMATED ANNUAL FIGURES OF TOP 10 BUNKER SUPPLIERS BY VOLUME (YEAR 2023)
Position BUNKER SUPPLIERS Volume in 2023
1 EQUATORIAL MARINE FUEL MANAGEMENT SERVICES PTE LTD 5.0 million mt
2 TFG MARINE PTE LTD 4.8 million mt
3 SINOPEC FUEL OIL (SINGAPORE) PTE. LTD. 4.7 million mt
4 PETROCHINA INTERNATIONAL (S) PTE LTD 4.6 million mt
5 VITOL BUNKERS (S) PTE. LTD. Not available
6 CHEVRON SINGAPORE PTE LTD Not available
7 BP SINGAPORE PTE. LIMITED 2.94 million mt
8 GLOBAL ENERGY TRADING PTE LTD 2.44 million mt
9 SHELL EASTERN TRADING (PTE) LTD Not available
10 ENG HUA COMPANY (PTE) LTD 2.2 million mt

The top three gainers for 2023 were Sinopec Fuel Oil (Singapore) Pte. Ltd (+16) which entered the Singapore market in 2022, Pegasus Maritime (S) Pte Ltd (+12), and both Kenoil Marime Services Pte Ltd (+6) and Central Star Marine Supplies Pte Ltd (+6).

Fratelli Cosulich Bunkers (S) Pte Ltd dropped by ten places from 26th in 2022 to 36th position in 2023.

A total of 41 bunker suppliers was registered in this year’s list (compared to 42 in 2022) due to the departure of Toyota Tsusho Petroleum Pte Ltd in Q4 2023.

A list of all bunker suppliers ranked by volume in 2023 (versus position in 2022) and their movement are as follows (best viewed on desktop):

LIST OF ALL BUNKER SUPPLIERS BY VOLUME (YEAR 2023)
Position in 2023 BUNKER SUPPLIERS Position in 2022 Movement
1 EQUATORIAL MARINE FUEL MANAGEMENT SERVICES PTE LTD 1 0
2 TFG MARINE PTE LTD 3 +1
3 SINOPEC FUEL OIL (SINGAPORE) PTE. LTD. 19 +16
4 PETROCHINA INTERNATIONAL (S) PTE LTD 2 -2
5 VITOL BUNKERS (S) PTE. LTD. 4 -1
6 CHEVRON SINGAPORE PTE LTD 8 +2
7 BP SINGAPORE PTE. LIMITED 6 -1
8 GLOBAL ENERGY TRADING PTE LTD 7 -1
9 SHELL EASTERN TRADING (PTE) LTD 5 -4
10 ENG HUA COMPANY (PTE) LTD 11 +1
11 GLENCORE SINGAPORE PTE.LTD. 13 +2
12 MINERVA BUNKERING PTE LTD 9 -3
13 MAERSK OIL TRADING SINGAPORE PTE LTD 12 -1
14 EXXONMOBIL ASIA PACIFIC PTE LTD 14 0
15 SENTEK MARINE & TRADING PTE LTD 10 -5
16 MARUBENI INT'L PETROLEUM (S) PTE LTD 17 +1
17 GOLDEN ISLAND DIESEL OIL TRADING PTE LTD 16 -1
18 SINGAMAS PETROLEUM TRADING PTE LTD 23 +5
19 BUNKER HOUSE PETROLEUM PTE LTD 24 +5
20 CATHAY MARINE FUEL OIL TRADING PTE LTD 21 -1
21 HONG LAM FUELS PTE LTD 15 -6
22 SK ENERGY INTERNATIONAL PTE LTD 20 -2
23 CONSORT BUNKERS PTE LTD 18 -5
24 TOTALENERGIES MARINE FUELS PTE LTD 22 -2
25 KENOIL MARINE SERVICES PTE LTD 31 +6
26 PEGASUS MARITIME (S) PTE LTD 38 +12
27 PALMSTONE TANKERS & TRADING PTE LTD 28 +1
28 GLOBAL MARINE TRANSPORTATION PTE LTD 27 -1
29 TRITON BUNKERING SERVICES PTE LTD 34 -5
30 SIRIUS MARINE PTE LTD 30 0
31 CENTRAL STAR MARINE SUPPLIES PTE LTD 37 +6
32 GRANDEUR TRADING & SERVICES PTE LTD 25 -7
33 CNC PETROLEUM PTE LTD 32 -1
34 IMPEX MARINE (S) PTE LTD 36 +2
35 HAI YIN MARINE PTE LTD 39 +4
36 FRATELLI COSULICH BUNKERS (S) PTE LTD 26 -10
37 VICTORY PTE LTD 35 -2
38 EASTPOINT INTERNATIONAL MARKETING PTE LTD 33 -5
39 HAI FU MARINE SERVICES PTE LTD 40 +1
40 BUNKER B PTE LTD 41 +1
41 SHELL SINGAPORE PTE. LTD. 42 -1
  • Includes conventional bunker and biofuel bunker

This year saw MPA including a list of top biofuel bunker suppliers by volume in 2023 with several new entries recorded supplying biofuel at the world’s largest bunkering port; the data is as follows:

LIST OF ALL BUNKER SUPPLIERS BY VOLUME OF BIOFUEL SUPPLIED (YEAR 2023)
Position in 2023 BUNKER SUPPLIERS Position in 2022
1 MAERSK OIL TRADING SINGAPORE PTE LTD New entry
2 CHEVRON SINGAPORE PTE LTD 1
3 BP SINGAPORE PTE. LIMITED 3
4 VITOL BUNKERS (S) PTE. LTD. 2
5 MINERVA BUNKERING PTE LTD 6
6 TOTALENERGIES MARINE FUELS PTE LTD 4
7 SHELL EASTERN TRADING (PTE) LTD New entry
8 TFG MARINE PTE LTD New entry
9 EXXONMOBIL ASIA PACIFIC PTE LTD 5
10 CATHAY MARINE FUEL OIL TRADING PTE LTD New entry
11 GLOBAL ENERGY TRADING PTE LTD 8
12 GOLDEN ISLAND DIESEL OIL TRADING PTE LTD New entry
13 PETROCHINA INTERNATIONAL (S) PTE LTD New entry
14 KENOIL MARINE SERVICES PTE LTD 9

Manifold Times recently reported a total of 51.82 million tonnes of bunker sales being registered in 2023, surpassing the previous record of 50.64 million tonnes in 2017.

Related: Singapore achieves milestone with record year for bunker sales in 2023
Related: Toyota Tsusho Petroleum removed from licensed bunker suppliers list in Port of Singapore
Related: Exclusive: Estimated marine fuel sales figures of Singapore top 10 bunker suppliers by volume in 2022
RelatedExclusive: Estimated marine fuel sales figures of Singapore top 10 bunker suppliers by volume in 2021
RelatedExclusive: Singapore top bunker suppliers reveal estimated sales volume for 2020
RelatedExclusive: Singapore top bunker suppliers reveal estimated sales volume for 2019
Related: Exclusive: Estimated annual sales volume for Singapore top bunker suppliers (2018)
Related: Exclusive: Singapore top bunker suppliers reveal monthly sales volume (2017)

 

Photo credit: Manifold Times
Published: 16 January 2024

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Bunker Fuel

JLC China Bunker Market Monthly Report (December 2023)

Country recorded 1.54 million mt of bonded bunker fuel sales in December, with the daily sales down by 8.04% month on month to 49,810 mt, JLC’s data shows.

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JLC China Bunker Market Monthly Report (December 2023)

Beijing-based commodity market information provider JLC Network Technology Co. recently shared its JLC China Bunker monthly report for December 2023 with Manifold Times through an exclusive arrangement:

Bunker Fuel Demand

China’s bonded bunker fuel sales retreat in December

China’s bonded bunker fuel sales retreated in December, mainly due to tighter supply of low-sulfur bunker fuel.

The country recorded 1.54 million mt of bonded bunker fuel sales in December, with the daily sales down by 8.04% month on month to 49,810 mt, JLC’s data shows.

The sales by Sinopec Zhoushan, SinoBunker and China ChangJiang Bunker (Sinopec) fell to 560,000 mt, 50,000 mt and 30,000 mt in the month respectively, while those by suppliers with regional bunkering licenses dropped to 424,100 mt, down from 435,000 mt in November.

In the meantime, Chimbusco tallied about 480,000 mt of bonded bunker fuel sales, unchanged month on month, the data also indicates.

Low-sulfur fuel oil supply tightened amid insufficient export quotas, leading to a decline in China’s bonded bunker fuel sales. Meanwhile, bunkering operation at some Chinese ports was spoiled by bad weather, adding to the downward pressure on the sales.

China’s bonded bunker fuel exports drop further in November

China’s bonded bunker fuel exports dropped further in November, due to tighter quotas on low-sulfur fuel oil (LSFO) exports.

The country exported about 1.37 million mt of bonded bunker fuel in the month, a cut of 6.12% month on month, JLC estimated, with reference to data from the General Administration of Customs of PRC (GACC).

Heavy bunker fuel exports fell to roughly 1.31 million mt in November, accounting for 95.42% of the total, while light bunker fuel exports slipped to 62,700 mt, accounting for 4.58%.

Enterprises with national bunkering licenses exported about 933,200 mt of bonded bunker fuel in the month, making up 68.20%, with Sinopec Fuel Oil and Chimbusco taking 60.93%. Meanwhile, enterprises with regional licenses supplied 435,000 mt, accounting for 31.80%.

Facing quota tightness, Chinese refiners continued to cut their LSFO production and exports. China tallied only 637,000 mt of LSFO output in November, with the daily output at 21,233 mt, a plunge of 32.49% month on month, JLC’s data shows.

Sinopec’s application to convert quotas on 800,000 mt of fuel oil exports to those on oil product exports was approved in November, bringing China’s total LSFO quotas for 2023 down to 13.20 million mt. By the end of November, Chinese refiners had used about 96.1% of the total quotas, JLC’s data shows.

Lower exports were also ascribed to inflating export costs. The barging capacity at ports in South China and Shandong decreased, pushing up freight rates and hitting some bonded distributors’ export interest.

However, on a year-on-year comparison, China’s bonded bunker fuel exports grew by 5.68% in November.

China’s bonded bunker fuel exports totaled approximately 18.07 million mt in January-November, a gain of 1.09% from the same months in 2022, speeding up from 0.74% in January-October.

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Domestic-trade bunker fuel demand contracts in December

Domestic-trade bunker fuel demand contracted in December, as buyers’ acceptance of lofty prices was limited. Though China’s bunker fuel prices dropped in the month, they were still relatively high, supported by tight supply.

Domestic-trade heavy bunker fuel demand settled at 430,000 mt in the month, down by 20,000 mt or 4.4% from the previous month, JLC’s data shows. Meanwhile, domestic-trade marine gasoil (MGO) demand plunged to 130,000 mt, down by 30,000 mt or 18.8% month on month. Trading in the light bunker fuel market was tepid, and shipowners showed low buying interest.

Bunker Fuel Supply

China’s bonded bunker fuel imports soar in November

China’s bonded bunker fuel imports soared in November, because of tighter domestic supply.

The country imported about 536,900 mt of bonded bunker fuel in the month, a sharp boost of 32.70% month on month, JLC estimated, with reference to data from the General Administration of Customs of Chinese refiners cut their low-sulfur fuel oil (LSFO) output further in November, due to persistent quota tightness. China’s LSFO output settled at 637,000 mt in the month, with the daily output at 21,233 mt, a plunge of 32.49% from October, JLC’s data shows.

To fill the domestic supply gap, bonded distributors continued to increase their low-sulfur bunker fuel imports. However, continuous rises in the premiums for imported LSFO capped the imports to some degree.

High-sulfur bunker fuel imports also grew in the month amid supply tightness, while marine gasoil (MGO) imports held largely stable.

Singapore remained the largest supplier by sending 171,900 mt of bonded bunker fuel to China in the month, accounting for 32.02% of China’s total imports. Meanwhile, South Korea and Malaysia climbed to the second and third place with 158,800 mt and 92,900 mt, accounting for 29.58% and 17.31% respectively. Russia slipped to the fourth place with 70,700 mt, occupying 13.16%, followed by Japan with 42,500 mt, which made up 7.92%.

On a year-on-year comparison, however, China’s bonded bunker fuel imports dropped by 14.78% in November.

Screenshot 2024 01 12 at 2.12.06 PM

Domestic-trade bunker fuel supply tightens in December

Domestic-trade heavy bunker fuel supply tightened in December, as blenders slowed down production when their blending costs inflated. Meanwhile, cargo delivery was not smooth against the background of strict tax inspection, forcing blenders to base their production on sales. Chinese blenders supplied about 430,000 mt of domestic-trade heavy bunker fuel in December, down by 30,000 mt or 6.52%, JLC’s data indicates.

At the same time, domestic-trade marine gasoil (MGO) supply settled at 150,000 mt, a monthly cut of 10,000 mt or 5.56%, the data shows. Refineries’ production enthusiasm was low when MGO prices dropped.

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BunkerPrices, Profits

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Editor
Yvette Luo
+86-020-38834382
[email protected]   

Sales (Beijing)
Tony Tang
+86-10-84428863
[email protected]  

Sales (Singapore)
Ginny Teo
+65-31571254
[email protected]
[email protected]  

JLC Network Technology Co., Ltd is recognized as the leading information provider in China. We specialized in providing the transparent, high-value, authoritative market intelligence and professional analysis in commodity market. Our expertise covers oil, gas, coal, chemical, plastic, rubber, fertilizer and metal industry, etc.

JLC China Bunker Fuel Market Monthly Report is published by JLC Network Technology Co., Ltd every month on China bunker market, demand, supply, margin, freight index, forecast and so on. The report provides full-scale & concise insight into China bunker oil market.

All rights reserved. No portion of this publication may be photocopied, reproduced, retransmitted, put into a computer system or otherwise redistributed without prior authorization from JLC.

Related: JLC China Bunker Market Monthly Report (November 2023)
Related: JLC China Bunker Market Monthly Report (October 2023)
Related: JLC China Bunker Fuel Market Monthly Report (September 2023)
Related: JLC China Bunker Market Monthly Report (August 2023)
Related: JLC China Bunker Market Monthly Report (July 2023)
Related: JLC China Bunker Market Monthly Report (June 2023)
Related: JLC China Bunker Fuel Market Monthly Report (May 2023)
Related: JLC China Bunker Market Monthly Report (March 2023)
Related: JLC China Bunker Market Monthly Report (February 2023)
Related: JLC China Bunker Market Monthly Report (January 2023)
Related: JLC China Bunker Market Monthly Report (December 2022)
Related: JLC China Bunker Market Monthly Report (November 2022)
Related: JLC China Bunker Market Monthly Report (October 2022)
Related: JLC China Bunker Market Monthly Report (September 2022)
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Related: JLC China Bunker Market Monthly Report (February 2022)
Related: JLC China Bunker Market Monthly Report (January 2022)

Note: China-based commodity market information provider JLC Technology has been providing Singapore bunkering publication Manifold Times China bunker volume data since 2020. Data from that period is available here.

 

Photo credit: JLC Network Technology
Published: 12 January, 2024

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