Connect with us

Alternative Fuels

DNV: Green ammonia a ‘key ingredient’ to decarbonise maritime industry

‘Singapore is in a very good position to play a key role in the decarbonisation of the global maritime industry,’ believes Cristina Saenz de Santa Maria of DNV.




Vessels on anchorage at Singapore Nikos Spaeth MT

The following article was published by Cristina Saenz de Santa Maria, Regional Manager South East Asia, Pacific & India, DNV Maritime through the social media platform LinkedIn on Monday (10 January):

The recent COP26 summit in Glasgow made it crystal clear that shipping is heading for carbon zero, but the route there is far from it. The grand challenge of our time remains: how to fuel the maritime industry’s transition to a carbon neutral future?

This is a question Singapore has prioritized as part of its green transition.


It is the world’s largest bunkering hub. It imports all the gas it needs to power households and the economy. And the strategically located island state has always been looking into the future to keep a leading edge.

In my view, Singapore is in a very good position to play a key role in the decarbonization of the global maritime industry. An important step was the establishment of the Global Centre for Maritime Decarbonisation (GCMD), in which DNV readily agreed to become a founding partner.

The Centre and its partners have now started to explore a portfolio of alternative fuels and strategies that will hopefully enable shipping globally to significantly reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions.

New fuels on the horizon include sustainable biofuels, biodiesel, bio-LNG, methanol, hydrogen, and ammonia, amongst others.

However, they “must be greener than the incumbent fuels, have a lower carbon life cycle, otherwise it would be a waste of resources to venture into such investments, as it will not reduce the overall carbon/GHG burden on the environment,” rightly notes GCMD Chief Technology Officer Dr Sanjay Kuttan.

GCMD picked ammonia as the first fuel to take a closer look into and commissioned a technical evaluation to define the safety and operational envelopes for ammonia bunkering in Singapore.

So, we must ask ourselves, how viable is ammonia and is it safe enough for widespread use as a marine fuel in Singapore, or anywhere, for that matter?

From our own studies and from pilot programmes conducted in Europe in particular, ammonia comes clean as an ideal marine fuel, as it provides better energy performance than hydrogen and it’s on a par with LNG.

Not only does ammonia burn CO₂-free, like hydrogen, but it has a higher energy density and is easier to store and transport than hydrogen, as it doesn’t require cryogenic – or ultra-cool – storage.

But what about green ammonia? How is it produced and where does it come from?

We know that it is currently going through marine fuel trials in Europe and Japan, and we see that one of the best Asia Pacific sources for green ammonia (and/or green hydrogen) could be Australia, as it is already a major supplier of LNG.

Green ammonia can be produced from green hydrogen, a well-established renewable energy source. Australia already has plans for major green hydrogen plants. In addition, ammonia is widely used there in agriculture, most commonly as a fertiliser.

We’re encouraged to see that the International Energy Agency (IEA) rates green ammonia highly as a shipping fuel for the future. In its Net Zero Emissions Scenario, IEA shows that green ammonia could meet around 45% of global shipping fuel demand by 2050. It also sees it as the lowest cost option as an alternative fuel for the future.

Another advantage for liquid fuels like hydrogen or ammonia is that they can safely be used alongside LNG during the transition phase. We also know that ship engines are being designed in Europe to accommodate ammonia, as an onboard fuel, alongside LNG.

Trials in Norway, for example, have shown that ammonia can be safely deployed even in passenger vessels and the researchers clearly could not identify any “incomprehensible technical or safety barriers”.

The decarbonization process for the global maritime industry is not going to be easy. I know there are challenges, but I see considerable opportunities.

With the right level of commitment and concentrated effort, ammonia could replace LNG as the predominant alternative shipping fuel in the future, with significant scaling after 2030.

But, of course, we must continue to consider – and put to the test – a whole range of alternatives fuels and strategies.

As our Maritime Forecast to 2050 says, it’s equally important to keep in mind a number of essential measures towards maritime industry decarbonization, including greater energy efficiency, fuel flexibility and weighing up all Fuel Ready solutions.

When all is said and done, in the words of our DNV Maritime CEO Knut Ørbeck-Nilssen, “the true fuel of the future is collaboration”.

Related: DNV Decarbonisation Insights: Singapore’s pathway to Net Zero and the role of Ammonia


Photo credit: Nikos Spaeth
Source: LinkedIn
Published: 11 January, 2022

Continue Reading


Marine Fuels 360: Methanol presents easiest path towards maritime decarbonisation, says DNV

Captain Singh was confident the bunkering infrastructure in Singapore will be ready to welcome methanol-fuelled vessels due to the coordinated efforts between various agencies.





Capt Satinder

The use of methanol as a bunker fuel presents the least path of resistance towards maritime decarbonisation, believes the Principal Consultant, Head, Research and Development, Maritime Advisory, SE Asia, Pacific, and India at classification society DNV.

Captain Satinder Singh Virdi was speaking amongst panellists in the Methanol Panel session at Marine Fuels 360 on Tuesday (28 November) when he offered an opinion about reasons behind the increasing awareness of methanol as a marine fuel.

“The ease of adopting methanol is perhaps one of the reasons. The product exists as a liquid at ambient temperature and has been carried on vessels for the last 80 years, so it is not something new,” he stated.

“What is new is we're going to use methanol as a bunker fuel. Ease of adoption, ESG compliance, as well as getting closer to decarbonisation goals are the drivers for shipowners adopting methanol.”

According to Captain Singh, the trend for methanol-fuelled newbuildings have continued in October where DNV’s Alternative Fuels Insight (AFI) platform recorded 230 vessels on order where 156 comprises of containerships.

“The trend started when Maersk increased their newbuild order of methanol-fuelled vessels; before that it was mostly LNG as an alternate fuel,” he said.

Captain Singh was confident the bunkering infrastructure in Singapore will be ready to welcome methanol-fuelled vessels due to the coordinated efforts between the Singapore Shipping Association, Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore, Global Centre for Maritime Decarbonisation, and other organisations.

“We are all working together to support Singapore’s future maritime operations. Singapore is an international maritime centre, and we want to establish ourselves as the leading maritime city,” he explained.

“I would call this a cohesive action by all relevant partners, such as shipowners, charterers, classification societies, ship managers, bunker testing firms, mass flow meter manufacturers, bunkering companies, and more.

“It is important for Singapore to be seen as a fair supporter of bunkering in terms of reliability and reputation, and if things go wrong actions are taken very strictly to ensure transparency and quality. So, in that way I am satisfied to say that ‘yes’ we have what it takes to make methanol bunkering happen.”

Related: DNV: Methanol-fuelled order trend continues, with first ammonia DF newbuilding contracts recorded in Oct
Related: Maersk invests USD 700.3 million for additional four methanol-fuelled container newbuilds

Other related: Singapore: Equatorial Marine Fuel builds four “new generation” methanol-ready bunker tankers
Other related: MPA: Due diligence carried out prior to recent Singapore methanol bunkering pilot
Other related: VPS completes quantity survey on Singapore’s first methanol bunkering op
Other related: The Methanol Institute: Singapore takes first-mover advantage in Asia with methanol bunkering pilot
Other related: Singapore bunkering sector enters milestone with first methanol marine refuelling op
Other related: Singapore gets ready for its first methanol bunkering this week after one year preparation
Other related: The Methanol Institute: Singapore takes first-mover advantage in Asia with methanol bunkering pilot

Photo credit: Informa
Published: 6 November 2023

Continue Reading


Höegh Autoliners, Sumitomo to collaborate on ammonia bunker fuel supply for PCTCs in Singapore, Jacksonville

Duo will embark on a comprehensive evaluation of the compatibility between Höegh Autoliners PCTC newbuilds and ammonia bunkering facilities at the identified bunker ports.





Höegh Autoliners, Sumitomo to collaborate on ammonia bunker fuel supply for PCTCs in Singapore, Jacksonville

Norway-based pure Car and Truck Carriers (PCTCs) vessel owner and operator Höegh Autoliners on Tuesday (5 December) said it has agreed with Sumitomo Corporation to look into the supply of clean ammonia as a bunker fuel at the ports of Singapore and Jacksonville, USA from 2027 onwards.

The two companies have formalised their commitment through a Letter of Intent to collaborate on the supply and delivery of clean ammonia as a next-generation sustainable maritime fuel for Höegh Autoliners’ upcoming Aurora Class PCTC vessels. 

The twelve vessels are set to become the largest and most eco-friendly car carriers ever built and they will have the capability to run on zero-carbon ammonia or carbon neutral methanol. 

“The Letter of Intent symbolises a remarkable step in the realisation and development of the production and consumption of clean maritime fuels. The collaboration hopes to stimulate the upscaling of the supply and demand of clean ammonia for maritime usage,” Höegh Autoliners said in a statement. 

Both companies view clean ammonia as a promising future fuel for the maritime industry, offering substantial potential in addressing the challenges associated with greenhouse gas emissions in global shipping. 

To support this vision, both entities have launched a range of initiatives throughout the ammonia value chain, with a primary focus on making clean ammonia a viable choice for maritime fuel and thereby achieving significant reductions in emissions from the global shipping sector.

Moving forward, the companies will embark on a comprehensive evaluation of the compatibility between the PCTC vessels and the ammonia bunkering facilities at the identified bunker ports. 

They endeavour to make necessary adjustments to specifications for both “shore-to-ship” and “ship-to-ship” bunkering operations and undertake safety assessments to establish standardised operational protocols and regulations in close coordination with pertinent government agencies.

Photo credit: Höegh Autoliners
Published: 6 December, 2023

Continue Reading

Alternative Fuels

CENIT and Hinicio to explore feasibility of zero-carbon bunkers in Colombia

Mission is to explore the feasibility of producing, storing, supplying, and exporting zero-carbon bunker fuels at strategic port locations in Colombia, says centre.





Luis Desiro on Unsplash

The Centre for Innovation in Transport (CENIT) on Tuesday (5 December) said it was teaming up with Hinicio, a strategy consulting firm focused on sustainable energy and mobility, for a project funded by The World Bank in Colombia.

CENIT said their mission was to explore the feasibility of producing, storing, supplying, and exporting zero-carbon bunker fuels at strategic port locations in Colombia.

“The shipping industry is poised to become a major demand centre for zero-carbon fuels, particularly green hydrogen-based options like green ammonia and green methanol,” CENIT said in a social media post. 

“And it will play a pivotal role in transporting these zero-carbon fuels from emerging production hubs in Latin America to high-demand centres in Europe and East Asia.”

“This project takes us a step closer to decarbonising ports and fostering a sustainable future for maritime transportation.”

Photo credit: Luis Desiro on Unsplash
Published: 6 December, 2023

Continue Reading
  • SBF2
  • Aderco advert 400x330 1
  • Consort advertisement v2
  • RE 05 Lighthouse GIF
  • v4Helmsman Gif Banner 01
  • EMF banner 400x330 slogan


  • Singfar advertisement final
  • Nunchi Marine 370x150 banner
  • 102Meth Logo GIF copy
  • HL 2022 adv v1
  • Triton Bunkering advertisement v2

  • UniFuels light sq
  • Cathay Marine Fuel Oil Trading logo
  • CNC Logo Rev Manifold Times
  • Victory Logo
  • Innospec logo v6
  • intrasea
  • SMS Logo v2
  • Manifoldtimes LogoAdv 300x300px
  • Energe Logo
  • endress
  • Advert Shipping Manifold resized1
  • 400x330 v2 copy
  • Headway Manifold
  • VPS 2021 advertisement