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DNV Decarbonization Insights: The rise of onboard carbon capture and storage in Asia

Concerns over potentially catastrophic impact of a rapidly warming planet have spurred efforts by Asian countries to set targets for achieving zero net carbon emissions by around the middle of this century.

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DNV Decarbonization Insights The rise of onboard carbon capture and storage in Asia

There’s a new acronym to get used to when embarking on the maritime decarbonization journey. 

It’s OCCS – which stands for “onboard carbon capture and storage” - and that’s comprehensively covered by DNV in its latest guidelines for the safe installation of the system on board ships.

The new OCCS guidelines have been produced amid growing pressure on the shipping industry to develop effective technologies to reduce emissions as part of the ongoing maritime energy transition.

Of course, many different methods for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will be necessary – including alternative cleaner fuels and more effective energy saving measures - to achieve international, regional, and national emissions targets. 

But post-combustion OCCS on board trading ships is expected to be among these very necessary future solutions, especially on vessels where the use of alternative fuels is not feasible.

DNV's new guidelines are designed to be used by stakeholders across the value chain, including ship designers, builders, OCCS system manufacturers, and ship owners, and apply to both newbuilds and retrofits. 

In the process, DNV says it is vital to cover all aspects for safe installation, including exhaust pre-treatment, absorption with the use of chemicals/amines, after-treatment systems, liquefaction processes, CO2 storage, and transfer systems.

"A focus on safety is crucial for new technology and must be prioritised as the industry looks to adopt sustainable fuels and CCS installations," said Chara Georgopoulou, Head of Maritime R&D and Advisory Greece, Senior Research Engineer II, Onboard CCS Manager.

CCS technology is tried and tested in land-based industry, but its application on board ships is relatively unproven. 

What the DNV guidelines provide is a framework for installation, offering support for stakeholders in the industry, while contributing to reducing emissions and driving the maritime industry towards a more sustainable future.

There are currently no statutory regulations addressing the possible safety implications of using OCCS systems on board ships. The guidelines also cover alternative solutions for carbon capture, including physical absorption and cryogenic methods.

DNV ready to test OCCS in Asia

It was recently announced that DNV has entered a Joint Development Project (JDP) with the Singapore-based ship owner Asiatic Lloyd Maritime LLP (ALM) to explore the feasibility of OCCS with ALM’s container and Kamsarmax bulk carrier. 

The plan is for DNV to cooperate with ALM on a techno-economic study of OCCS on vessels using DNV’s FuelPath to assess the economic potential of the different fuel and technology strategies. The model will reflect a range of fuel and CO2 price scenarios and future decarbonization requirements, aligned with ALM’s own net zero ambitions.

T1 Ind 501 The FuelPath model

Ever ready to collaborate, Cristina Saenz de Santa Maria, Regional Manager Southeast Asia, Pacific & India, Maritime at DNV said she was delighted that DNV is partnering with Asiatic Lloyd Maritime to explore cost-effective fuel strategies that would support their net zero ambitions.

“It’s becoming increasingly important for shipowners to look ahead and embark on a decarbonization strategy that allows for regulatory compliance and optimized operations. 

“To this effect, backed by DNV’s experienced global network and team of experts in the Maritime Decarbonization & Autonomy Regional Centre of Excellence in Singapore, we are in a prime position to help the industry navigate the maritime energy transition in a safe and efficient manner,” she said. 

This is a good way to see how OCCS will work in different vessels and conditions, and notably in Asia. 

OCCS case study model

T2 Ind 501 Annual cost range

DNV’s latest Maritime Forecast to 2050 report detailed the techno-economic evaluation involving  the company’s tried and tested FuelPath model for a large, modern deep-sea ship, a 15,000 TEU container vessel, sailing between the Far East and Western Europe. 

Assumptions for this study  are that the ship runs on heavy fuel oil (HFO), has a carbon dioxide (CO2) capture unit and storage tanks, and is fitted with a scrubber for sulphur oxides (SOX) and exhaust pre-treatment. 

The study models annual costs under two on-board CO2 capture and storage (CCS) scenarios, Low and High cost, to compensate for economic uncertainties such as CAPEX and OPEX. It focuses on two parameters that it assesses as impacting most on the economics of on-board CO2 capture. 

One is the ‘fuel penalty’, the extra energy used for operating the capture unit. The other is the ‘CO2 deposit cost’, the sum of the CO2 transport and storage costs.

So, what is required for an economic case for on board CCS?

T3 Ind 501 Annual cost range CCS

For the annual cost range, the Low CSS (cost) scenario is seen to perform well against the other fuel strategies. The Forecast attributes this partly to the HFO price in the scenarios, and partly to fuel penalty and CO2 deposit costs compared with the cost of buying a larger share of carbon-neutral fuels.  

The High CCS (cost) scenario performs around the middle of the studied fuel strategies. For net present value, the High CCS (cost) case is close to the mean for the fuel strategies by mid-century while the Low CCS (cost) case outperforms three-quarters of them.

“Our research suggests there can be an economic case for on-board CCS if the capture technologies have low fuel penalties and if a CCS industry can offer the low CO2 storage costs in our model,” says Eirik Ovrum, Maritime Principal Consultant at DNV and lead author of the Forecast.

While no detailed studies have been undertaken so far in Asia, there is growing interest in putting OCCS to the test.

Growing regional interest in CCUS

Concerns over the potentially catastrophic impact of a rapidly warming planet have spurred efforts by countries in Asia to set targets for achieving zero net carbon emissions by around the middle of this century. 

CCS and carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) are seen as ways to reduce the negative effects of fossil fuel use.

Last year, DNV and Petronas signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) to address the technical, regulatory, and business challenges of carbon capture utilization and storage (CCUS) deployment. 

The collaboration entailed initiatives and activities related to CCUS deployment by leveraging each organisation’s technical skills, resources, and research capabilities. CCUS enables the capture of CO2 emissions from industrial activities and, in South East Asia, could play a crucial role in the region’s transition to net zero.

In June this year, DNV awarded Petronas, Mitsui O.S.K. Lines, Ltd. (MOL) and Shanghai Merchant Ship Design & Research Institute (SDARI) with Approvals in Principle (AiPs) for their jointly developed liquefied carbon dioxide (LCO2) carriers and LCO2 floating storage and offloading unit (FSO). This was awarded soon after the announcement made by Petronas, Pertamina, and PTTEP, South East Asia's three biggest national oil companies, that they are intensifying efforts to develop carbon capture and storage (CCS) capabilities in an attempt to both decarbonize and seize opportunities in the nascent industry. 

Taking DNV’s new OCCS Guidelines to heart and testing them in different vessels, situations and locations is a necessary step as the industry explores various means to decarbonize and achieve emission reductions. 

In Asia and everywhere, DNV believes the maritime industry has to go beyond setting targets to achieve net zero to actually putting in place effective technologies – as spelt out in the OCCS guidelines - to reduce emissions as part of the ongoing decarbonization process and towards an effective energy transition. 

Photo credit: DNV
Published: 3 November, 2023

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Events

Headway Technology Group hosts seminar on low carbon solutions in Singapore

Event, themed ‘Innovation for better low carbon solution’, drew over 100 delegates, including representatives from Singapore ship owners, shipyards and alternative bunker fuel associations.

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Headway Technology Group hosts seminar on low carbon solutions in Singapore

Qingdao-based maritime technology firm Headway Technology Group (Headway) on Tuesday (23 January) hosted a seminar at Parkroyal Collection Marina Bay, Singapore. 

The event, themed Innovation for better low carbon solution, drew over 100 delegates, including representatives from Singapore ship owners, shipyards, designing institutes, and alternative fuel associations. The focus of the seminar was to engage in discussions on the challenges and opportunities within the realm of low-carbon shipping.

In the keynote speech, Headway emphasised Singapore's consistent leadership in green shipping technology and regulations, positioning the city-state as a hub where visionaries and pioneers converge to ignite ideas through collective effort and intelligence. 

Addressing the pressing industry focus on low-carbon solutions, Headway reaffirmed its commitment to providing trustworthy solutions with dedication and innovation. The seminar served as a pivotal step forward, lifting the veil of uncertainty that lies ahead on the path to 2050.

Key highlights of the seminar included detailed analysis and explanations from Principal Consultants Zhang Jie and Satinder Virdi of DNV, who delved into the relevant regulations and market situations regarding the decarbonisation pathway and solutions from the classification society's perspective. 

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Chris Chatterton, COO of Methanol Institute, provided an in-depth analysis of the trend and status of methanol as a bunker fuel. Govinder Singh Chopra, Director of SeaTech Solutions International, offered a comprehensive analysis of challenges, opportunities, and solutions in the pathway to net zero from the designing institute's standpoint. He also presented a design example of the layout of the OceanGuard® Methanol Fuel Supply System, intended for fitting onboard existing vessels.

picture4

Headway's project leaders provided a comprehensive overview of the company's low-carbon solution portfolio, including the Methanol Fuel Supply System, Carbon Capture, Utilisation and Storage System, and Exhaust Gas Cleaning System. The company has built a robust carbon ecosystem with a closed-loop value chain, proven to be intelligent, customizable, modular, flexible, and dependable. With 120 service stations across 56 countries and regions, Headway can deliver comprehensive, localised technical and round-the-clock support on low-carbon solutions.

Having invested significantly in the Singapore market, Headway has secured substantial approvals and orders from Singapore customers. The company has established a branch company and spare parts warehouse in Singapore to provide timely and effective technical consultations and support for customers. 

Looking ahead, Headway aims to deepen its cooperation with partners in Singapore and around the world, fostering a mutually beneficial relationship and contributing to a sustainable future for green shipping.

Related: China: Headway unveils proprietary Methanol Fuel Supply System and CCSU, leads forum on alternative bunker fuel and propulsion technology
Related: Interview: Headway Technology Group charts maritime decarbonisation ambition with portfolio expansion
Related: China: Headway and China National Energy Group agree to supply methanol fuel supply system for bulk carrier
Related: Headway Technology secures order to supply methanol fuel supply system for marine vessels

 

Photo credit: Headway Technology Group
Published: 29 January, 2024

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Alternative Fuels

GCMD highlights bunker fuel pilots and trials in inaugural Impact Report 

Report highlights its four initiatives to help decarbonise the maritime industry since its establishment in 2021 including studying ammonia as a marine fuel and trials on drop-in green fuels.

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The Global Centre for Maritime Decarbonisation  on Wednesday (18 October) launched its inaugural Impact Report, highlighting its four initiatives to help decarbonise the maritime industry since its establishment in 2021.

The Impact Report shares progress of the initiative the centre is working on:

Ammonia as a marine fuel

GCMD has completed a safety study identifying the risks associated with ammonia transfer. The study shows that these risks (totalling more than 400) can and should be mitigated to as low as reasonably practicable levels.

Given the need to specify location and other details for hazard identification (HAZID) and coarse quantitative risk assessment (c-QRA), GCMD specified the port of Singapore for the safety study. With Singapore’s position as a major maritime hub with constrained operating areas, i.e. busy sea space, proximity to economic activities, sensitive receptors and stringent specifications in port limits, piloting ammonia bunkering in Singapore will make the guidelines extensible to ports elsewhere in the world.

Following the release of the study, the GCMD projects team, led by Lau Wei Jie, Director of Partnerships and technical lead on this ammonia initiative, is making preparations for piloting ship-to-ship (STS) cargo transfer, within the Port of Singapore, and also at ports elsewhere to ready stakeholders and the ecosystem for ammonia bunkering when ammonia-fuelled vessels become available. 

This exercise will help build confidence by undertaking an established operation (i.e. STS transfer of cargo in open waters) within port limits where the risk profiles are substantially elevated to understand and help address regulatory and emergency response requirements. In parallel, conversations have commenced with overseas port authorities and port masters to understand local considerations, including limitations on existing berths for loading/discharging of ammonia, anchorage locations, proximity to sensitive receptors and safety requirements. These discussions help GCMD identify how we can support the building up of capabilities in multiple geographies to support ammonia bunkering.

GCMD is also working closely with Oil Spill Response Limited and their partner BlueTack to develop emergency response procedures. 

GCMD has also initiated discussions with Singapore Maritime Academy to co-develop a competency framework to establish training curricula for manpower development in handling ammonia as a bunker fuel. This culminated in a training module on the handling of ammonia as a bunker fuel within SMA’s current course.

Assurance framework for drop-in green fuels

According to CEO Prof Lynn Loo, GCMD successfully completed the trialling of three independent supply chains employing physical tracers and bunkering biofuel blends on five vessels in two different ports. These learnings form the basis of an assurance framework that GCMD is currently drafting. 

“Testing of crude algae oil as a marine fuel has begun and GCMD looks forward to supply chain trials in the near future,” she said. 

With the data collected from the completed trials and additional data to be collected from the remaining two supply chains, GCMD is working with BCG, an Impact Partner, to develop a robust framework for GHG accounting and conduct green premium cost-benefit analysis of deploying biofuels.

The learnings from these trials and details of the framework will be shared broadly through a public report that will be published in early 2024.

Unlocking the carbon value chain

GCMD is working on the engineering design of a shipboard carbon capture system and collaborating with landside partners to understand the challenges and opportunities of offloading and offtaking captured CO2.

Energy efficiency technologies

GCMD is scoping several pilots to implement energy savings devices onboard vessels with the intention to help close the data-financing gaps for wider adoption.

In conclusion, GCMD said it believed the pilots are essential to accelerating the energy transition in the maritime industry and the recent Global Maritime Decarbonisation survey, conducted with Boston Consulting Group (BCG), reaffirmed this need.

Note: The full report of GCMD’s inaugural Impact Report can be viewed here.

Related: GCMD, BCG survey highlights three maritime decarbonisation archetypes
Related: GCMD and partners complete bunkering of third biofuel supply chain trial, involving tracer dosing
Related: Completed safety study paves way for first ammonia bunkering pilot in Singapore
Related: GCMD-led consortium completes trials of sustainable biofuel bunker supply chains

Photo credit: Global Centre for Maritime Decarbonisation
Published: 20 October, 2023

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Bunker Fuel

DNV launches new guidelines for onboard carbon capture systems on board ships

Guidelines cover all aspects for safe installation, including exhaust pre-treatment, absorption with the use of chemicals/amines, after-treatment systems and CO2 storage.

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Classification society DNV on Monday (9 October) said it published new guidelines for the safe installation of onboard carbon capture and storage (OCCS) system on board ships, amid growing pressure on the shipping industry to develop effective technologies to reduce emissions as part of the ongoing maritime energy transition.

Different methods for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions will be necessary to achieve international, regional, and national emissions targets. Post-combustion OCCS on board trading ships is expected to be among these future solutions, especially on vessels where the use of alternative fuels is not feasible.

DNV's new guidelines are designed to be used by stakeholders across the value chain, including ship designers, builders, OCCS system manufacturers, and ship owners, and apply to both newbuilds and retrofits. They cover all aspects for safe installation, including exhaust pre-treatment, absorption with the use of chemicals/amines, after-treatment systems, liquefaction processes, CO2 storage, and transfer systems.

"Our new guidelines for onboard OCCS systems aim to support the industry as it faces strict requirements for emissions reduction. A focus on safety is crucial for new technology and must be prioritised as the industry looks to adopt sustainable fuels and CCS installations," said Chara Georgopoulou Head of Maritime R&D and Advisory Greece, Senior Research Engineer II, Onboard CCS Manager. 

“While CCS technology is already known in land-based industry, its application on board ships is relatively unproven. Our guidelines provide a framework for installation, offering support for stakeholders in the industry, while contributing to reducing emissions and driving the maritime industry towards a more sustainable future.”

While the guidelines are based on DNV classification requirements, additional technical or other requirements may be imposed by relevant flag-state administrations. There are currently no statutory regulations addressing the possible safety implications of using OCCS systems on board ships. 

The guidelines also cover alternative solutions for carbon capture, including physical absorption and cryogenic methods.

Note: DNV’s guidelines were published in September and can be accessed here

Photo credit: DNV
Published: 10 October, 2023

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