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Industry first: DNV and industry consortium publish “Handbook for Hydrogen-fuelled Vessels”

The Handbook for Hydrogen-fuelled Vessels offers a roadmap towards safe hydrogen operations using proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC).

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A consortium of 26 leading companies and associations, led by DNV, has launched the “Handbook for Hydrogen-fuelled Vessels" to address the uncertainties surrounding hydrogen as ship fuel. The MarHySafe joint development project (JDP) aims to create a knowledge base for safe hydrogen operations in shipping:

Green hydrogen could play a crucial role in the maritime industry’s journey towards decarbonization. Many in shipping recognize hydrogen’s potential as a fuel, but the barriers to realizing this potential are substantial. Led by DNV, a consortium of 26 partners and observers have come together in the MarHySafe JDP to examine these challenges. The Handbook for Hydrogen-fuelled Vessels offers a roadmap towards safe hydrogen operations using proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). It details how to navigate the complex requirements for design and construction, and it covers the most important aspects of hydrogen operations, such as safety and risk mitigation, engineering details for hydrogen systems and implementation phases for maritime applications.

“Green hydrogen is one of the zero carbon fuels that could be vital to meeting the IMO GHG goals, but as with other new fuels, there are still significant challenges regarding its safe and widespread implementation,” said Knut Ørbeck-Nilssen, CEO DNV Maritime. “We are fortunate to be working with companies that are really ahead of the curve in terms of hydrogen operations. Having such esteemed partners and observers on board this project makes the insights gleaned all the more valuable. Furthermore, it shows how the shipping industry can pool its collective expertise and to tackle these crucial issues. We work best when we work together - the handbook is testament to this.”

Some of the main challenges for hydrogen operations in shipping include the current regulatory framework, which is open to interpretation by different stakeholders, existing knowledge gaps on the safe handling, storing and bunkering of hydrogen, as well as the unique properties of hydrogen that make it challenging to work with.

“This handbook provides a comprehensive overview of what companies need to consider with a hydrogen-fuelled vessel, as well as areas that require further investigation and testing before this technology can be taken up on a larger scale,” said Nathaniel Frithiof, Senior Consultant, Environment Advisory at DNV Maritime and Project Manager for Phase II of MarHySafe. “But as MarHySafe progresses, we are working to ensure that the Handbook is much more than a static document, rather a knowledge hub that will be continually updated and will provide a basis for the future development of hydrogen rules.”

In the summer, the MarHySafe JDP enters into Phase II. This will include pre-calculated risk assessments, experimental testing, as well as more work on hydrogen bunkering and input towards standardization. Alongside this, the Handbook for Hydrogen-fuelled Vessels will be updated continually as the project progresses to reflect the current level of expertise in the industry.

The MarHySafe Phase 1 project partners include: the Norwegian Maritime Authority (NMA), the Norwegian Defence Materiel Agency (Naval Systems, NDMA), Equinor, Shell, Air Liquide, Linde, Kawasaki, Chart Industries, Parker, UMOE Advanced Composites, Hexagon Purus, Fincantieri, Feadship, HySeas Energy, Ballard, Cummins (previously Hydrogenics), Corvus Energy, A.V.Tchouvelev & Associates, Vancouver Fraser Port Authority, Redrock, Hydrogen Technology & Energy Corporation (HTEC), Memorial University, and DNV. The Norwegian Public Roads Administration (NPRA), the Standards Council of Canada, and the Norwegian Directorate for Civil Protection (DSB) were observers in MarHySafe Phase 1.

 

Photo credit: DNV
Published: 1 July, 2021

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Alternative Fuels

GCMD, BCG survey highlights three maritime decarbonisation archetypes

Survey identified three decarbonisation archetypes within the shipping industry, differentiated in their outlook, investment appetite and the challenges faced.

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The Global Centre for Maritime Decarbonisation (GCMD) and Boston Consulting Group (BCG) conducted an industry survey to take stock of shipowners and operators’ progress in establishing six elements needed for the shipping industry to reach net zero, according to BCG on Wednesday (27 September). 

The survey saw strong participation from 128 shipowners and operators across vessel types, fleet sizes and geographies, which collectively own or operate 14,000 merchant vessels, and account for USD500 billion in revenue.

The duo found high decarbonisation ambitions: Most respondents viewed net zero as a strategic priority, and 77% had already set concrete decarbonisation targets. The industry has also mobilised resources to decarbonise: respondents are investing 2% of their revenues into green initiatives, and 87% have personnel working toward green objectives.

The path to net zero for shipowners and operators requires six elements:

  • A robust strategy and roadmap
  • Four specific decarbonisation levers to reduce emissions: operational efficiency, technological efficiency, fuel transition, and shipboard carbon capture
  • Enablers such as dedicated sustainability teams, strategic investments in green initiatives, internal carbon prices, and digitalization

While the industry has made some progress in adopting mature and cost-effective efficiency levers, adoption of complex or nascent levers remains low. Drop-in green fuels are constrained by costs and supply-side gaps, and optimism for future cleaner fuels is yet to translate into firm commitment.

The industry is now at a pivotal point, with many shipowners and operators ramping up their decarbonisation efforts. Three-quarters of respondents plan to increase investments in green initiatives. Stakeholders can build on this momentum with a variety of supportive actions. But to be effective, they need to tailor their interventions to address the specific challenges that shipowners and operators face at each stage of decarbonisation.

Three Decarbonisation Archetypes

GCMD and BCG saw three archetypes, differentiated in their outlook, investment appetite, and the challenges faced.

Frontrunners have the greatest ambitions and are willing to invest heavily. They are pushing boundaries, adopting even nascent decarbonisation levers, such as wind propulsion and air lubrication. A majority plan to pilot shipboard carbon capture solutions by 2025. Frontrunners are also planning to adopt methanol and ammonia as early as 2026 and 2029 respectively, and the availability of fuels and bunkering infrastructure will be critical to enabling adoption.

Followers believe in decarbonising their fleets, but have tighter investment thresholds and a near-term outlook. They have kept pace with Frontrunners in adopting mature and cost-effective efficiency levers, such as main engine improvements and slow steaming, but are behind in the adoption of nascent levers, such as wind propulsion and air lubrication.

Conservatives are still early in their decarbonisation journey, likely due to a lack of awareness and familiarity with the various decarbonisation levers, and the capabilities to assess and deploy them. They are best supported by measures that increase their familiarity with the levers and help contextualise them to their specific fleets and operational requirements.

The research highlights five key actions for stakeholders:

Conduct technical pilots and facilitate data sharing, especially for nascent levers

  • Create innovative financing mechanisms to de-risk adoption of less mature levers
  • Raise awareness, contextualize levers, and build capabilities, especially among Conservatives
  • Start to build out future fuels infrastructure at ports
  • Develop mechanisms to equalize and share the costs of levers across the ecosystem
  • Maritime decarbonization is a complex, critical endeavor. The successful implementation of these five key actions demands a whole-of-value-chain approach. By working together, stakeholders can transform the maritime sector into a beacon of environmental stewardship, and set a course for a greener future where decarbonization and commercial success go hand in hand.

Note: The GCMD-BCG Global Maritime Decarbonisation Survey report can be downloaded here.

Photo credit: Venti Views on Unsplash
Published: 28 September, 2023

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Ammonia

Itochu enters MoU with firms for study of ammonia bunkering safety for container carrier

Through this cooperation, several companies and organisations will come together to discuss and study safety issues during ammonia bunkering of a container carrier that uses ammonia as a bunker fuel.

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Itochu enters MoU with firms for study of ammonia bunkering safety for container carrier

Tokyo-based Itochu Corporation on Tuesday (22 September) said it has executed a Memorandum of Understanding for a joint study of ammonia bunkering safety for an ammonia-fuelled container carrier among eight companies and organisations with the aim of implementing the use of ammonia as a bunker fuel in shipping industry. 

Through this cooperation, several companies and organisations will come together to discuss and study safety issues during ammonia bunkering of a container carrier that uses ammonia as a main fuel.

“This MOU for Ammonia Bunkering Safety for Container Carrier is an important milestone for social implementation of the use of ammonia as marine fuel on a global scale, and also a necessary step toward the realisation of the Integrated Project consisting of the construction of a global ammonia supply chain and the development of ammonia-fuelled ships by ITOCHU and its partner companies,” the firm said in a statement. 

A joint study that will be carried out under the MOU is a successive phase of the existing Joint Study Framework launched in 2021 by 34 companies and organizations including ITOCHU and Joint Study Framework for Ammonia Bunkering Safety launched in 2022 by 16 companies and organizations including ITOCHU, and focused on discussion and study of safety issues of ammonia bunkering to ammonia-fueled container carriers among experts from port authorities, container liner operators, bunkering related players and shipping company. 

A key subject of the joint study under this MOU for Ammonia Bunkering Safety for Container Carrier is the safety assessment for simultaneous operations of container cargo operations and ammonia bunkering in a container terminal, which is generally required for container carriers to achieve operational efficiencies.

ITOCHU said it is promoting a development of ammonia-fueled container carriers with potential partners following the development of ammonia-fuelled bulk carrier, which obtained Approval in Principle in 2022. ITOCHU will accelerate the development of an ammonia-fueled container carrier based on findings of this MOU for Ammonia Bunkering Safety for Container Carrier and plans to bring it to the international shipping market in late 2020s.

ITOCHU will accelerate the development of sustainable energy systems through these initiatives and ensure its contributions to the SDGs and improvement of related efforts, one of the basic policies laid out in its new medium-term management plan, as the company pursues a low-carbon society.

The eight companies and organisations are; Algeciras Bay Port Authority, Spain; Port of Rotterdam, Netherlands; CMA CGM, France; A.P.Moller Maersk A/S, Denmark; Mitsui O.S.K. Lines, Japan; Pavilion Energy Singapore, Singapore; TotalEnergies Marine Fuels, Singapore; and ITOCHU. 

Related: Itochu-led joint study of ammonia as an alternative marine fuel expands to 34 players
Related: 23 industry players participate in joint study of ammonia as an alternative marine fuel
Related: Singapore: Pavilion Energy, MOL, Total join Itochu and Vopak ammonia bunker fuel study
Related: Spain: Itochu, Peninsula enter MOU for joint development of ammonia bunkering in Gibraltar Strait
Related: Japan: “K” Line, ITOCHU and partners receive ClassNK AiP for ammonia-fuelled bulk carrier

Photo credit: Itochu Corporation
Published: 28 September, 2023

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Alternative Fuels

Singapore signs MoUs with China partners to advance maritime collaboration 

One of the MoUs was with CCS to explore collaborations to reduce GHG emission through use of zero or near-zero emission bunker fuels and marine battery technology, amongst others.

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Singapore signs MoUs with China partners to advance maritime collaboration

The Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore (MPA) on Tuesday (26 September) said it has signed three Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with regional maritime administrations and partners in China to advance collaboration on digitalisation, decarbonisation, talent development, and information exchange. 

The MoUs were signed at the Port Authorities Roundtable 2023 hosted in Shanghai and at the sidelines of 3rd Global Sustainability Transport Forum in Beijing.

MPA-China Classification Society           

MPA signed an MoU with the China Classification Society (CCS) on 25 September 2023 on the sidelines of Global Sustainability Transport Forum in Beijing at the CCS Conference of Green and Intelligent Technologies for a Sustainable Shipping Industry. The MoU was signed by Mr Teo Eng Dih, Chief Executive of MPA and Mr Sun Feng, Chairman and President of CCS.

Under the MoU, MPA and CCS will explore collaborations to reduce greenhouse gas emission through the use of zero or near-zero emission bunker fuels and marine battery technology; co-innovate smart ships technologies with researchers, industry, and maritime startups through platforms such as PIER71™; and support the development of maritime talent and training through maritime scholarship programme and internship opportunities. Headquartered in Beijing, CCS is a full member of the International Association of Classifications Societies with over 120 offices worldwide.

MPA-Shanghai Municipal Transportation Commission

The MoU between MPA and the Shanghai Municipal Transportation Commission was announced on 22 September 2023 at the North Bund Forum in Shanghai, and signed on 24 September 2023 at the Port Authorities Roundtable 2023. The MoU was signed by Mr Teo Eng Dih, Chief Executive of MPA, and Mr Yu Fulin, Director General of Shanghai Municipal Transportation Commission.

The MoU aims to strengthen port and maritime ties between two of the world’s largest ports to foster mutual learning through information exchange on port and shipping developments, maritime policies and regulations, as well as training and research. The MoU also aims to co-develop digitalisation and decarbonisation solutions for shipping and port development. Given its role in the development of the Yangtze River delta, Shanghai is also one of China’s key transshipment centres.

MPA-Tianjin Port and Shipping Authority

An MoU between MPA and Tianjin Port and Shipping Authority (TPSA) was signed on 26 September 2023 on the sidelines of 3rd Global Sustainability Transport Forum. The MoU was signed by Mr Teo Eng Dih, Chief Executive of MPA, and Mr Wang Honghai, Director General of TPSA.

Under the MoU, MPA and TPSA will discuss issues relating to maritime digitalisation and decarbonisation; exchange information and experiences on development on shipping and regulatory framework, port developments, and maritime training; and facilitate maritime talent exchanges and collaborative opportunities in areas such as maritime research and development. 

Located in the Bohai Bay Rim Region, Tianjin Port is one of the largest ports in Northern China and one of the fastest growing Chinese ports in terms of annual container throughput.

Photo credit: Maritime and Port Authority of Singapore
Published: 27 September, 2023

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